A huge role in the art of landscape design is given to plants. Experienced designers know almost everything about every kind, from the properties of lawn grass to the characteristics of large trees. A novice gardener will have to understand all the subtleties of the combination of different flora, to study the features of flowers, bushes. One of the elements used in the design of the adjoining space is tavolga. On it we focus attention, we will consider its versions, ways of landing and care of a spirea.
Own land in the city, suburb, with residential, cottage construction - a real salvation for urban residents. Some people, tired of the eternal bustle, noisy freeways, dirty air, acquire a house in the village. Along with the cultivation of crops, many improve the territory, use the services of specialists, and amateurs of agriculture do it themselves.
Spirea - plant description
In old books and classifiers, this plant is known as tavolga. Spirea is a genus of small perennial flowering shrubs from the Rosaceae family, includes about 70-80 species, as well as many garden varieties resulting from hybridization. Representatives of this species grow in the northern temperate zones of Eurasia and North America. However, most types are home to Central and East Asia.
Deciduous shrubs have shallow root lobe system. The difference in height is significant - from 15 cm (dwarf) to 250 cm (gigantic). The color of the branches varies from light brown to dark brown. In shape, there are erect, spread, lying variants of branches, so they can climb along the ground, grow in a cascade. The bark exfoliates longitudinally. Many species have oval, lobed, lanceolate (oblong with a pointed tip) leaves 2.5 to 10 cm long. Their edges are toothed, rarely come across smooth, arranged in pairs.
Meadowsweet inflorescences consist of a large number of small flowers 0.5-1 cm in diameter, consisting of 15-60 stamens, 5 petals, 5 sepals. Flowers can form different inflorescences in the form of dense panicles, umbrella-shaped shields. Color, flowering and duration of fruiting depends on the variety. Early flowering (in spring) are characterized by white color, letnetsvetushchy - white, pink-red tone, late flowering - different shades of purple. Flowering begins at 3-4 years of life, the seeds ripen within 1.5-2 months.
Spiraea is used in ornamental gardening, in medicine, as it contains salicylates, it is eaten. These are excellent honey plants, they are very much appreciated by beekeepers.
Types and varieties
Deciduous shrubs are found at different latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, grow in many countries, each of which conducts research in the field of botany, distinguishes its species. In this direction, American, Canadian, Russian, Chinese, German scientists, specialists from other states are working. To date, there are about 80 species of this plant, many different hybrids have been developed.
Some varieties are used in ornamental gardening and forest park economy, others are not widely spread, are found either in their natural range or in botanical gardens. Plants can be classified according to different parameters, but the main thing is the time of their flowering, according to which two types are distinguished:
- Spring blooming. Characterized by early flowering, strong tillering. On the shoot, flowers begin to grow only in the second year of his life. The main feature - shades of petals only white.
- Flowering Unlike the previous group, the inflorescences appear only on young shoots, and the old ones gradually dry out and die. The flowers have a white, pink, purple tone.
Blooming in spring
There are many early-flowering species of this plant, each of them has its own distinctive characteristics. Consider a few of the most popular varieties that gardeners use:
- Spirea is gray. It is a hybrid, obtained by breeding a cephalus (hypericifolia) and whitish-gray (cana) spirea, so it does not reproduce with the help of seeds. The height of the bush is 0.9-1.8 m. It is very compact, has a decorative appearance. It can be planted as an independent element, use whole groups. The branches of the spirea of the bride become curved under the weight of the lancet leaves and a large number of white flowers.
- Spirea Wangutta. This species is also artificially derived from the Cantonese (cantoniensis) and three-blade (trilobata) species. The bush is round, its height reaches 2 m. As in the previous version, the branches are bent downwards and covered with numerous hemispherical inflorescences located along the entire length of the shoot. Serrated leaves, obovate. Reproduction occurs by cutting, germination of the seed is minimal, does not exceed 5%.
- Spirea Nippon. The homeland of this species is Japan, the islands of Shikoku and Honshu. Deciduous shrub, whose height reaches 1.5 - 2 m. The width reaches 2 m. Begins in 5-6 years. The branches are long, falling. Ovoid, elliptic leaflets 1.5-3 cm long. Flowers 0.9 cm wide, inflorescences up to 3 cm, grow along the entire shoot.
Of the existing subspecies, the most common are:
- Snowworld The bush grows in height to 1.2 m, in width - 2.5 -3 m. It is a deciduous shrub with bunches of small cupped flowers.
- Halvard Silver. Dense low shrub, not exceeding 1 m in height, 1.2 m in diameter. The leaves are elliptical, up to 4.5 cm long. The flowers are small, growing quickly.
- Spirea argut. Hybrid of Thunberg (thunbeigii) and a multi-flowered variety. A large folding plant, height - up to 2 m. The leaves are narrow and oblong, strongly serrated. Umbrella inflorescences include many small elements, completely cover shoots. This is one of the most effective, leading positions in flowering shrubs, unpretentious, resistant to urban conditions.
Blooming in summer
These plants mature later, but you can enjoy their beauty much longer. Young branches, on which the inflorescences grow, grow every year; after drying, the old ones are pruned at least once every 4 years. Proper care and the presence of a developed root system provide shrubs durability. To get acquainted with this subspecies let us dwell in more detail on several options:
- Japanese spirea. Homeland is China, Japan, Korea. High shrub 1.2-2 m, with the same width parameters. The leaves are oval with toothed fields, alternating along the stem. The flowers are pink, are only at the ends of the branches. It has four natural varieties, named after botanists from different countries.
- Spirey Bumald. Low plant up to 0.8 m. Grows slowly. The flowering period is up to 100 days. The leaves are egg-shaped dark green, light green, golden orange. Depending on the variety may have light pink, dark purple, dark lavender shades of inflorescences.
- Spirea is ivolistnaya. Frost-resistant upright shrub, not higher than 2 meters. The leaves are elongated-oblong, sharp along the edges. The color of the petals is pink, inflorescences of a narrow pyramidal shape tending to be cylindrical. Can be grown as an ornamental plant.
- Spirey Douglas. It grows in the western part of North America. It is a woolly shrub. The distance from the rhizome to the top point reaches 2 m. At the beginning of summer, the flowers have a pink color, darken with time. The leaves to the tips are toothed. Habitat - marsh, mud banks, river banks. Native Americans used them as a broom.
- Spirey Billard. Artificial species obtained by crossing the variety Douglas and wolf. Bush tall to 2.5 m. Petals are dark pink, numerous cone-shaped inflorescences. The shoots are upright, slightly deflected to the sides, but do not hang down. Leaves dull green, constricted and long. It tolerates pruning.
With proper care, spiraea gives a long abundant flowering. Some species have their own requirements for the soil. All spireas will get acclimatized in the fertile land with the addition of leafy humus. The root collar must be left at ground level, so that it does not get wet and rotted.
Site selection and soil preparation
To observe the beauty of flowering and enjoy the perfect shape of a yellow bush in the fall, you need to choose the right place for it on the site. This should be an open area with the maximum amount of sunlight. In the shadow of spiraea will slow growth, will bloom less abundantly. A shrub is planted in early spring, after the appearance of the first buds or in the fall, when all the leaves have fallen.
Spiraea grows well in loose soil from a mixture of sod with humus. A portion of the sand is added to the two parts of the fertile mixture. A healthy seedling has a well-developed root system, with moderately dried roots. If they have grown too large, they need to be shortened to facilitate planting and rooting. Too dry roots are placed in water, and shoots are pruned.
When disembarking a spirea to a permanent place, it is necessary to take into account its rapid growth and the appearance of basal shoots. She needs a lot of free space. If space cannot be created, the extra branches must be separated from the roots.
Planting spireas for hedges, the distance between the bushes should be at least 0.7 m, when creating compositions with junipers - up to 1 meter in a circle.
Landing in spring
The choice of planting season depends on the type of spirea. The summer blooming varieties are planted in early spring in order to have time to place the plant in the open ground before the leaves appear. Prepare a landing hole. Its depth should be three times the length of the root system, at least 70 cm. A layer of drainage is laid out at the bottom (10-15 cm) and part of the hole is filled with a mixture of soil, peat and sand.
At the bottom of the pit form a hill and sit on it a plant with straightened roots. Fill the hole with clean earth, crush it a little, water it plentifully. The root zone is carefully hidden under the mulch.
Planting in the fall
Early flowering varieties of spirea are planted in the fall. It is important to have time to place the plant in the ground for a couple of weeks before the first frost. In the habituation period, the plant should be at rest. It is desirable to divide the young bushes, whose age does not exceed 4 years. The root system of older plants will be difficult to extract from the ground.
Shared bush is dug out and placed in a container with water, so the sticky earth comes off. A sharp shears cut the bush into pieces so that each of them has a branched lobe of the roots and several summer shoots. Then the plant is sent to the ground according to the standard scheme with drainage, mulch and abundant irrigation.
How to care for shrubs
The beautiful, unpretentious plant is used in any option of gardening of giving. It is possible to uncover the decorative possibilities of the spirea to the maximum, if it is provided with the right care To maintain an attractive look, the bushes systematically prune, form a crown, make it pyramidal, spherical, take care of the leaves. Weak, old branches cut off at the base. Spiraeus can attack pests and even snails. They need to fight in a timely manner.
Due to the peculiarities of the root system, its surface location, meadowsweet may experience a lack of moisture in dry weather. It is possible to create comfortable conditions and prevent drying if the layer of mulch at the roots of a shrub is annually renewed. Spiraea reacts poorly to excessive moisture, so it must be watered regularly, but moderately.
Each adult bush for one procedure should receive at least 15 liters of water. The frequency of irrigation depends on external factors, humidity, time of year, and weather. On average, it is necessary to moisten the soil twice a month. Late flowering seedlings require more abundant watering than early varieties.
Weeding, loosening and mulching
The foot of the bushes must be kept loose. Appeared seals in pristvolnyh circles, it is necessary to knead, saturate the soil with oxygen. It is necessary to act very carefully so as not to touch the creeping riding roots.
In order for the soil to be always soft and airy, it is necessary to free the area with spiraeas from weeds in time. The soil is mulched with peat, sunflower seed husks, sawdust. The layer of mulch should not exceed 10 cm, otherwise the greenhouse effect will be created and the roots may rot. Mulch is placed indented 15 cm from the root zone to prevent damage to the stems by rodents.
Top dressing and fertilizer
The plant does not require a lot of fertilizer, spirea enough fertile land and infrequent watering. But moderate feeding will be the way in the spring and autumn. During this period, use of bulk universal drugs. It is necessary to carefully place them in the soil, adhering to the dosage recommended by the manufacturer. It is better to scatter them around the base of the bush. Strengthens the plant and stimulates its growth Kemira wagon, azofoska.
In addition to feeding spirea needs fertilizers. For each growth period, certain formulations have been developed. Use the following solutions:
- Organic They saturate the ground with them after sanitary pruning and before flowering. The source of nutrients is manure, chicken manure and superphosphates. For tall shrubs harvested 1-2 buckets of infusion. Low-growing enough half the norm. As a fertilizer, you can also use compost, ash, peat.
- Mineral In the first half of summer, emphasis is placed on urea, nitrate (ammonia, potassium, calcium). Nitrogen mixtures are used together with phosphate compounds before spirea blooms. In the fall, these types of fertilizers can not be used, because they can cause a rapid growth of new shoots that do not have time to harden before the cold weather and die.
Pruning is carried out on plants that bloom in spring and summer. Faded panicles are removed from any kind of sprayer. This is especially important for varieties whose foliage has a more picturesque appearance than inflorescences. In this way, they emphasize its expressiveness at the beginning of autumn.
You can make a lush bush for spring-flowering varieties using a special pruning after flowering. The longest shoots are shortened by half or third. From them will go a few branches and many buds. In this way, stimulate lush flowering.
Several methods of cutting can be applied to letneretsvetuschim spireas. The choice of method will depend on the purpose of planting, the age of the shrub. Single bushes are trimmed three years after planting to form new shoots for flowering. The following types of spring treatments are practiced:
- Cosmetic, sanitary.
Spirea is very popular with gardeners. It looks great in a hedge, in a flower bed with other plants or in a single planting. The plant is represented by many species, the breeding of which can be practiced without specially created conditions. Spiraeus can be propagated in several ways, in spring or autumn. If there is a need to divide the plant in the summer, do it better in cloudy weather.
Far from all varieties of spirea can be grown from seeds. Hybrid species will not germinate, but even if they germinate, they will alter their properties. In other cases, this method of reproduction is quite simple and rational. The advantages of growing from seed include the following factors:
- You can get a lot of plants at once;
- Well kept after collection;
- Do not require additional preparation for planting;
- Seed dispersion is carried out in groups into the prepared soil.
Sowing takes place in spring. A mixture of vermiculite and peat is placed in a large box and the seeds are distributed. Top sprinkled with soft soil and cover with a film. When the plants sprout, the film is removed. After a couple of months, shoots dive, pinch the roots and transfer to a spacious box. In this capacity spirea will be all summer. In the fall it is planted in the garden. At the main place transferred in the next year.
It is possible to preserve all the characteristics inherent in the variety, if the shrub is propagated in a vegetative way - by grafting. The method is equally good for both species cultures and hybrids.
The stiffened cuttings root in September. Beginning of autumn is chosen to simplify the care of plants, because in winter they do not need watering. Only annual shoots that grow vertically are suitable for grafting. They are cut into several parts, leaves are left at the top, lower ones are removed. Place for 12 hours in a jar with a solution of water and 1 ml of Appin. Planted cuttings in the wet sand at an angle and send in the shade. For the winter, spiraea is added in grams and wrapped. Spring plants can be planted in the ground.
A convenient way if you need to get some plants. In early spring, at the time of the first leaves blooming, several lower branches of the bush are bent down and pin them to the ground. Then sprinkle with earth and water abundantly. The first inflorescences are removed to get new plants in a short time. На зиму ветки помещают в укрытие.
Следующей весной спирею можно рассаживать, корневая система растений будет полностью сформирована. Отводки аккуратно отделяют и делают пересадку на постоянное место, используя советы специалистов.
The period of flowering spiraeus associated with the formation of inflorescences. In early flowering flowers are laid on last year's shoots and appear along with the leaves. Summer blooming varieties form small flowers in inflorescences at the ends of young shoots.
At the peak of flowering panicle cover the entire length of the shoot or only its upper part. Such plants are often used in mixborders, since they successfully participate in compositions with floral and leafy outfits. In autumn, faded panicle pruned so that they do not spoil the appearance of the shrub.
Preparing the plant for winter
Due to good winter hardiness, most species of spirea do not require special preparation for wintering. The critical temperature for such a plant is - 50 ° C. In regions with snowless winter weather, some warming activities should still be held at the end of autumn.
When the shrub ottsvetet, spend sanitary pruning. Remove sick, weak, dead shoots. Formation of the crown with pruning shears can weaken the plant, therefore it is better to postpone such a procedure until spring.
After the end of the leaf fall, it is necessary to thoroughly loosen around the entire bush, water it abundantly and cover the area near the roots with leaves, sawdust, peat. The height of the layer of mulch should be at least 20 cm. Such insulation will preserve the root system, protect the branches from frosting.
Fight against diseases and pests
Having excellent immunity, spiraea is rarely exposed to diseases and attacks of pests. Even if the disease could not be avoided, it is unlikely to be seriously affected. Spiraea can lose its decorative effect in the following cases:
- Aphid attacks. Large colonies dry young branches, leaves. An ordinary garlic tincture with a few drops of manganese helps well against them. Also use special means - "Kronefos", "Aktellik";
- Rosaceous miner. The females of the mining flies pierce the leaves and lay eggs in them, which leads to the death of the branch. The larva is destroyed with paraffin-containing agents, pyrethrum-based insecticides;
- Listovertka rosany. Caterpillars appear with the first warming, the leaves are gnawed and gnawed. The shrub is treated with a solution of household soap and ash, with Denis Pro and Fitoverm preparations;
- Spider mite A large generation covers the stems in white bloom. Then they take a red tint, dry up and fall away. For the destruction of pests use an infusion of ash and laundry soap, drugs "Fozalon", "Metofos";
- Blue-cedar sawfly. Even a pair of larvae can seriously damage a plant by eating its shoots and leaves. To fight using insecticide spraying.
- Whitefly. They feed on sap plants, multiply rapidly. The bugs carry pathogenic viruses. Adults are caught in traps specially hung near Spirea, the larvae are removed with soapy water, garlic infusion.
You can grow a healthy lush bush without any special effort. Spiraea is great for novice gardeners who have just decided to try their hand at earthworks and plant plants on the site. The abundance of types and forms allows you to create stunning compositions, combined with other beautiful perennials.