Premises for saving food supplies are in demand among the population. Many use for this purpose a basement located under the house or a garage, but over time they are convinced that this is not a very suitable place for long-term storage of fresh crops and conservation. Therefore, the owners of their own land plot decide to build a cellar on it with their own hands, and some owners of apartments located on the ground floor, equip such structures under their own balcony.
It is difficult to overestimate the value of the structure, both for each individual and for society as a whole. After all, since its transition to a settled way of life, the first dugouts have appeared, whose functional purpose has not changed over the years, only the materials for their construction have improved. The main thing in self-construction is to choose the right location point, determine the depth of groundwater, to choose the most appropriate type of construction.
Advantages and main differences of the cellar from the basement
To understand the difference between the two types of structures, first we need to consider their definitions:
Cellar - a room located under the ground, used for the storage of agricultural products. It is an ordinary pit with fortified walls, filled with concrete, lined with bricks and other building materials. From above it is closed in bulk, some models have a roof.
Basement - the lower part of the structure, located under it. May have an area comparable to the main building. Used for various needs. There may be a garage, boiler room, storage room, utility rooms.
The main differences:
- As can be seen from the definition, the main difference between both structures is their location. If the cellar can be anywhere on the site, the basement is equipped only under the residential building.
- Each of the designs has its own purpose. The cellar is used exclusively for storing food, the basement is multifunctional.
- In the building, located under the house, you can equip the cellar - on the contrary will not work.
- The cellar is constantly maintained at a low temperature; in the basement it can change.
- The basement area is much larger.
The advantages of the cellar include:
- free location on the site;
- constant temperature in the range of 3-5 ° C, which allows for a long time to preserve, fresh vegetables and fruits;
- the choice of the appropriate size;
- natural air circulation;
- small construction costs.
Types of cellars
There is a wide variety of designs of vegetable stores. For their construction on their own site is not required approved drawings and permits from supervisory authorities. However, when choosing a particular species, first of all it is necessary to consider the level of groundwater occurrence (GWL). From this parameter depends on the possibility of deepening the structure into the ground, which should be at least 0.5 m above the groundwater table. According to the degree of deepening, the following types of cellars can be distinguished:
- Recessed. Fully located underground. On the surface there is only the entrance to the building. The height of the walls is more than 2 meters, often deepens by 2.5 - 3 m. A constant temperature is maintained here even in summer time, due to the presence of the top layer of soil.
- Semi-deep. Partially located below ground level. Deeper at 0.7-1 m. Constructed with a high occurrence of GWL. Requires additional waterproofing, often equip clay lock.
- Ground. Used in the case when there is no opportunity to go deep. To maintain the temperature regime, the structure can be filled with a layer of soil from above.
To improve the design of the territory, in the construction of the embankment on the upper cellar, soil and a sand-gravel mix are used, which makes it possible to decorate the surface with a lawn or flowerbed.
By the method of location on the site can be identified:
- Detached cellar. Erected at any point.
- Wall. It is attached to a house or an economic structure.
- Combined. Often the structure is equipped with a summer kitchen, a garage, a residential building.
Choosing a site for construction
Before choosing a suitable place, it is necessary to make geological surveys. With their help, you can find out the type and composition of soil, groundwater table, the probability of flooding the territory, the nature of the terrain. Based on these parameters, the degree of deepening of the storage, the need to strengthen the walls is determined. Recessed structures can be placed under the bath, barn, garage, while saving extra space in the cottage, garden plots.
If it is planned to place the cellar separately from the main structures, then it is better for it to choose the most elevated place on its territory. This will ensure dryness inside, the absence of dampness, respectively, and foreign smells. It is desirable to grow around the trees, which will protect him with his crown from the sun in the summer. The size of the structure is chosen based on the needs of the family, the number of its members. On average, one person will be enough 1.5 - 2 m².
It is not recommended to place a vegetable store near the buildings at a distance of less than 0.5 m, to prevent shrinkage of the foundation, the destruction of the walls.
Construction of a deeply buried cellar
Arrangement of storage space for stocks should be carried out in the summer in dry weather. Deep buried version is ideal for providing a suitable indoor climate. He settles on any part of the country, in the barn, under a canopy, in the garage. If it is decided to build it in an open area, a special cellar should be provided. A small room will save the basement from flooding, direct sunlight. For best results and quick work, all actions should be carried out in a strict sequence according to a previously outlined pattern.
Materials and tools for construction
The equipment of a deep-buried cellar can be carried out using various compositions and mixtures. Underground premises must meet all quality standards in order to fulfill their functions as long as possible. During construction, the following materials will be used:
- Gravel, gravel;
- Clay solution;
- River sand;
- Brick, cement mortar;
- Roofing material for waterproofing;
- Tar-like products;
- Metal grates;
- Boards for the frame.
For the arrangement of the home basement need concrete mixer, shovel, hand tamper, hammer, screwdriver, Bulgarian, handsaw, a set of brushes, nails and screws.
Preparation of the pit
The recess in the ground must be at least 2.5 meters. When digging the pit, it is important to consider the thickness and material of the floor, the height of the rubble pillow. Its thickness will be 20-30 cm. The volume of the pit each owner chooses individually, depending on the planned harvest, the number of family members. To a given figure add a few centimeters to the finish walls, the device clay lock.
It is better to dig a hole for the cellar manually, since the uneven edges left after the excavator will contribute to the destruction of the waterproofing. In the process of digging in the corners, the supports from the channel will immediately be hammered, and the floor beams will be laid on them in the future. After completion of the work, the pit is left for several days, covered with polyethylene. During this time, you can determine the suitability of the pit for future storage. If groundwater is slightly outlined, such places are covered with clay. Abundant flooding makes further construction impossible.
For good protection of products from the sun's rays, the underground cellar should have its own foundation. You can make a real isolated camera, which is not afraid of any external influences, by creating a strong base. For street basements use two types of bases:
- Ribbon Foundation. Apply on solid soils, with a significant removal of groundwater. A trench is dug along the perimeter of the pit, sand is laid on the bottom and tamped down, then crushed stone is poured. At the bottom of the pit lay reinforced frame, make formwork and pour concrete.
- Monolithic plate. Use on soft soils with a close location of underground waters. The installation of a reliable solid foundation involves deepening the pit by another 0.5 meter. The bottom of the pit is filled with sand, rubble, put a reinforcing frame, build a formwork. Concrete poured over the entire area of the pit and give it a good dry for 7 days.
The walls in the underground cellar are made of concrete, brick, block. The concrete mixture is poured after the construction of the formwork on the reinforcement cage. Work must be carried out without delay, otherwise the material will dry out and cold bridges will be formed, which will make the wall less durable.
Brick wall make in one element. Masonry fastened with a solution of cement or clay and sand. The outer side is coated with resin, insulated with ruberoid. The hollow space between the brick and the ground is covered with earth.
Waterproofing and ventilation
Ventilation must be provided in any type of cellar. Underground storage - especially wet room. Water will be released through the soil from vegetables and fruits. It is better to provide two ventilation channels. The first one is inlet, it looks like a pipe and goes down to the bottom of the basement. Through it naturally will be fed clean air. The second channel - exhaust, mounted on the opposite wall, provides the outflow of waste air masses.
So that there are no problems with the penetration of moisture during the operation of the underground cellar, it is necessary to make a good waterproofing. It is more convenient to engage in finishing the inside of the building. To reduce the moisture permeability of surfaces in the following ways:
- Penetrating finish. Chemical additives react with concrete, form crystals that cover the pores;
- Coating Internal surfaces are coated with bitumen polymer mastic.
- Pasty. Roofing material is applied using special fasteners, the method of fusion.
- Combined. Waterproofing lock includes bitumen layer, sheet waterproofing.
Cellar overlap and ceiling insulation
To overlap the repository using wood, concrete or a combination of both. The treated walls are supported by wooden beams, and antiseptic boards are mounted on them. Preparing the flooring of the slab with a hole for the hatch. After installation, the structure is coated with clay, covered with soil, covered with polyethylene, and poured with concrete.
For internal insulation overlap using foam. Attach it to the lattice design under the ceiling, sheathed boards, fiberboard. Between the material and the ceiling is necessary to make a layer of polyethylene. You can mount it on a simple double-sided tape. For the finish coating suitable board or plaster.
The upper part of the street storage can be at ground level or rise by 20-30 cm. In the latter case, you need to build a good solid roof. It can be sloping, gable. The only condition is the insulation of the outer part of the soil. The inner side of the coating is laid out with a croaker, convex parts upwards. This option is suitable if the cellar is located on a hill at the foot of the hill.
If the cellar is a separate structure, it is better to make the roof of boards at a certain angle. The tree should go beyond the trench by at least 50 cm. The roofing material and slate, straw, and tile should be laid on top of it.
When choosing lighting for a basement, it is necessary to pay attention not only to the design of lighting devices and the type of lamps, but also to the method of their mounting, the possibility of a safe cable. Suitable models of devices that are completely isolated from moisture. They should be lightweight, robust, non-corrosive. You can use only one-piece cable. When installing fixtures in rooms with high humidity, you must comply with the following safety rules:
- Use special transformers that reduce the voltage to 42 V;
- Cable laying is carried out through special plastic insulators;
- Apply hermetically protected cartridges;
- Switches can be mounted only outside the storage.
Interior decoration and equipment of the cellar
The decoration of the cellar is very different from the internal work in the living room. For this purpose, only special materials are suitable - moisture-proof, non-toxic. More often use paint for underground premises. It can be a mixture based on liquid glass, acrylic compositions, various emulsions. For good adhesion to the concrete surface, you must first apply a moisture-resistant base.
Also used for finishing outdoor storage often slaked lime. This is a budget option, but requires good ventilation. Antifungal mixtures protect the surface from mold, do not allow microorganisms to multiply.
When all the finishing work has been completed, you can proceed to equipping the cellar with various shelves and boxes for storing products. The quantity, the form, the sizes of racks each gardener chooses for himself individually. For cans and barrels fit wooden coasters along the walls. Poles and hooks under the ceiling can be used for drying berries and fruits.
Features of the construction of the upper cellar
Ground garden storage can be built on any site, with the exception of a place with a high level of groundwater. The building can be a real decoration of the courtyard, if it is beautifully decorated from the street. There are several options for riding storage. Separate them by location relative to soil level.
Stores can stand alone or be attached to one of the walls of the house, shed, any other building. You can choose any option, there are no special differences between the land buildings. It all depends on the capabilities and skill level of the site owner. When drafting a project, it is necessary to take into account the design features and advantages of any type of structure.
Construction with embankment
The construction of the cellar is not a big deal. For the construction will require logs, boards, any wood material. Raw materials do not have to be new, you can use items from disassembled sheds, summer showers or the remnants of any tree. Building materials must be prepared - to coat with bitumen. So you can significantly extend their service life.
Massive logs are driven in along the perimeter of the future cellar and their ends are tied at the top. The construction is covered with boards and roofing felt. Peat mixture is used as embankment. It is poured onto the roof and well tamped. This will allow for better heat retention. If desired, the soil can be sown with any low vegetation. On one side of the door do, insulated with polyethylene, foam.
Externally, the bulk cellar resembles a triangular prism. This design is perfect for storing vegetables, preservation and other preparations for the winter. The edges of the roof must necessarily hang down. This will ensure a good flow of water, and the snow in the winter will play the role of natural insulation.
Construction without embankment
The long-beloved gardeners of the mini-cellar perform not only their direct functions, but can also be the original decoration of the site. The storage without embankment can be built on a small area, thanks to the surface type of construction, any flooding with groundwater is excluded.
The design and size of the cellar can be any, as long as there is enough space to store the entire food stock. When drafting a project, one should take into account the amount of the crop, the number of family members. The design can be made of the usual type - insulated box with double walls or a room with ventilation and interior decoration. For an external, internal arrangement, any original idea is suitable, for example, in the hobbiton style.
Construction of a land cellar without embankment begins with site preparation. Remove the top layer of soil, about 20 cm, level and tamp the site. Then lay out the draining pillow of expanded clay. This will increase the waterproofing. If there are many rodents near the country house, the device is supplemented with eroded clay. Bricks are placed in this mixture with a minimum clearance and are laid at least 15 cm high from the ground.
The ceiling and walls are made of massive boards. To create an ideal microclimate, stacking in several rows with a lining of insulating material is used. The design must have ventilation. Roof do gable, odnoskatnoy of slate or roofing material.
The building does not fully go underground, its main part rises above the ground, which allows you to build a full-fledged storage facility. This arrangement reduces the time and labor costs for the construction of the cellar. It will be required to dig a shallow ditch, there will be enough minimum thermal insulation. Он выйдет дешевле и эффективней любого цокольного, полуподвального варианта. Хранилище удобно в использовании, в него легко попасть по широким ступеням. Для строительства такого погреба потребуются следующие материалы:
- Цемент для стяжки, ступенек;
- Masonry mortar, plaster mass;
- Pine boards;
- Pieces of stone of irregular shape.
It is necessary to work strictly according to a preliminary draft, performing step-by-step planned actions. First, dig a pit, about 1 meter. Then they lay a brick, concrete base, raise the walls to the desired level, usually not higher than 2 meters. The bottom and walls lay out waterproofing materials (roofing material, clay, bitumen). The roof is made of slab, covered with roofing felt and sprinkled with soil. A great idea for interior decoration is the use of an arched ceiling.
Cellar of concrete rings
This method of construction is simple and less expensive than previous versions. It has its advantages and disadvantages. Strong well rings are a durable material that is resistant to damage and groundwater, but they are heavy, so you cannot do without using lifting equipment. The construction can be erected without a foundation, with minimal waterproofing. Enough to smear the joints of the material with mastic. Rings require careful installation. At the slightest bias, durable concrete will crack.
Concrete parts can be round, square. This makes it possible to locate them in a vertical, horizontal position, optimally organize the internal arrangement. Before purchasing materials for a country cellar, it is necessary to clearly understand its purpose, assess the possibility of delivering a heavy load to the installation site, calculate the required number of elements.
Having passed the preparatory activities, you can proceed to construction. On the territory of private plots mainly erect vertical cellars of the rings. They start with earthworks: dig a hole 2.5 meters deep, fix the ring, coat the joint with cement mortar, lower the next ring and firmly connect the tongue and groove.
Now, for the convenience of descent and finishing work set metal ladder. The roof can be used purchased or do it yourself with metal sheet and heat-insulating materials. For better air circulation do double natural ventilation - install pipes at different heights.
Features of the construction of the wine cellar
The construction of a cellar for storing wines is almost the same as a standard vegetable store. First, choose a suitable place, with the condition that the inside should be quite dry. In order to place the structure under the house, it must be designed before it is built, while it is forbidden to have a vault under the kitchen, sauna, bath.
When choosing building materials, it is necessary to pay attention to the absence of a specific odor, and they should also be treated with antiseptics, covered with moisture protection agents. For the construction of walls, you can use concrete, brick, foam block. Interior decoration of partitions is carried out exclusively from natural wood, stone, including artificial, decorative tiles, bricks. Hardwood, ceramic tiles, natural stone, gravel or sand are used as floor coverings.
The important point is the internal arrangement. For lighting the wine structure, only low-power artificial light sources are used. To maintain the microclimate, temperatures in the range of 12-14 ° С, special thermal doors are installed, both internal and input. Thermal insulation and vapor barrier deserve special attention, there should be no gaps in the room, they are treated with antiseptics and sealed. For thermal insulation, plating with a porous structure is used. You should not forget about high-quality ventilation, on which the absence of extraneous odors depends.
Ready-made designs for cellars
In the absence of experience, tools, time and effort to build a repository, you can use ready-made models. For many gardeners, gardeners, this option becomes the best. There are different types of such structures, which differ in material production:
- Metallic. The product is a sealed metal case with a minimum number of seams. The surface is covered with a protective anti-corrosion layer. The design can be installed without fear of rising groundwater, heavy rain, it will provide high-quality waterproofing.
- Plastic. The material is not susceptible to corrosion, unlike metal does not rust, has a small weight, which facilitates its installation. They are characterized by a long service life of more than 50 years.
Products differ in shape:
- Spherical Are presented in the form of a round or oval capsule with a ladder inside. Characteristic form for plastic options.
- Rectangular, square. The design has the parameters of the standard cellar.
- Cylindrical. Looks like a regular barrel. Made from high quality plastic.
Cellar under the balcony in the apartment
You can build a storage for vegetables and other supplies under the apartment’s balcony by obtaining permission for redevelopment at the appropriate authority. The laborious, expensive work will take place in several stages:
- We dig out a ditch. The height must be at least 2 meters, the width determines the boundaries of the balcony itself;
- Covering the floor with ruberoid. For reliability, crushed stone can be placed under the coating and compacted;
- Making the basis of cement. So that no irregularities form on the surface, it should be covered with linoleum;
- Install the hatch. We make measurements and cut out the grinder from the sheet of iron of the required shape of the part. We attach it with dowels and cover it with material identical to the floor covering of the balcony.
How to care for the cellar
Periodic maintenance is required to keep any structure clean and in good condition. The vegetable store is no exception. With timely maintenance design products will not deteriorate, will not acquire a foreign smell. You can do this by following certain rules:
- Every 1-2 years, as well as in case of detection of fungus or mold, the room must be disinfected. To do this, the entire contents, up to the removable shelves, is carried out on the street, washed and dried. Walls, floor and ceiling are cleaned, whitened with freshly quenched lime.
- Once a year, in the beginning of summer, the cellar must be cleaned, periodically thoroughly aired.
- Occasionally, the vegetable store should be checked for gas content. To do this, you need to light a match in the room; if it does not burn, then it is aired.
- In case of heavy rains, it is recommended to close the ventilation so that moisture does not get inside through the pipes.
- In case of detection of murine, rat tracks, traps should be installed, and the exit from the holes should be sealed with cement mortar. It is not recommended to use poisons.
Many owners of country houses have their own garden, store food for the winter. Even those who use a cellar as a storage facility cannot do without a cellar. Many have already appreciated the advantages of this structure, others only decide to build it themselves. Someone generally makes a choice in favor of the purchase of finished products.