The ceiling, located between the floors, under the roof is not only a partition, limiting the height of the room, it is an important part of the interior of the room, it serves as a base for the placement of lighting fixtures. The lower part of the ceiling occupies a considerable area. To design the surface fit responsibly, as it is one of the main visual elements of the internal space.
There are several types of ceilings: plastering, hemming, stretch, suspended. Their design depends on the material used for finishing, the method of its installation. The construction market offers a huge selection of options and means for decorating the surface of a room. Among the presented diversity can be distinguished universal building material - drywall. This raw material is very much in demand, it is easy to work with it, it allows to realize different designer fantasies.
Advantages and disadvantages of plasterboard ceilings
The material is used as a covering, facing the surfaces of dry premises. It consists of two layers of cardboard, between which is hardened plaster. It is environmentally friendly, not subject to burning, rotting. Sheet plasterboard, like any building material, has positive qualities, is also not without flaws. Consider the advantages inherent in the design:
- Allows to level an uneven surface without special efforts;
- Differs moderate weight sheets;
- Easy installation; a person with minimal construction skills can handle it;
- Inside the frame used for fixing plasterboard sheets, unnoticeably fit communications (wires, pipes, air ducts);
- It allows you to play with forms, to create complex, multi-level ceiling structures;
- In the frame, you can install an additional insulating layer, noise insulation;
- It serves as a good base for lighting elements;
- Plasterboard surface can be painted, wallpaper-coated, lined with ceramic tiles.
Unfortunately, the material is not without certain disadvantages:
- When used, the height of the room is significantly reduced, which makes it unacceptable to use it in a room with a low ceiling;
- To prevent the sheet from losing its original appearance, it is forbidden to store it, install it in unheated rooms with high humidity;
- Violation of the installation technology may cause cracks.
Types of gypsum sheets
Products representing the mineral composition, held on both sides by paper layers, differ in certain parameters and structure. Characteristics define and divide products into several types, each of which has its own abbreviation:
- GKL - standard drywall sheet. It is used in heated rooms with minimum humidity (up to 60%). Coating color is gray-brown. The inner layer consists of gypsum containing few additional additives.
- GKLO (fire resistant) - designed for rooms with increased fire risk (kitchen, attic, boiler room). Marking red, pink. The core consists of gypsum with inclusions of fire-resistant mineral fibers (fiberglass, clay). Able to withstand open fire up to one hour.
- GKLV (moisture resistant) - designed for rooms with high humidity (more than 60%). Installed in kitchens, bathrooms, swimming pools. It has a green color. It is processed by antiseptics, antifungal impregnations. Silicone granules are added to the core.
- GKLVO (water, fire-resistant) - is used in places with high humidity, where there is a risk of fire. Includes characteristics of both previous types.
- GVL - an improved version of the GCR. Gypsum board is a homogeneous material without a cardboard coating. Made of gypsum, which is reinforced with cellulose waste paper and special additives. Differs in big weight and cost.
- Arched - characterized by small thickness, well bends, used in the construction of arches, undulating structures, domes. Work on the bending of the product is carried out in two ways: wet, dry.
- Facade - has a yellow color, resistant to weathering, is used for facades.
- With insulation - it is a standard sheet, a panel with a layer of insulation glued to the back side. During installation requires calculations of the humidity of the room, the device of natural ventilation between the base and building material.
- Vinyl coated - laminated panels have a thin film coating. Racks to fading, long retain their original appearance. Thanks to the coating of the front surface, do not require additional finishing.
A variety of ceilings in shape and level
The building material used for leveling and finishing the ceiling is demanded by the broad masses. From the standard sheet are created various designs. There are also many forms that can be given to the ceiling surface, consider them:
- Rectangular. Standard option. It hides all the irregularities, visually expands the space of the room.
- Square It is identical to the rectangular shape. It is found in rooms with equal length walls. May have a multi-level design.
- Round. It is used to highlight the center of the room, it goes well with the objects installed there (sofa, table).
- Oval or curved. Gives the room an original look, allows you to make it non-intrusive zoning.
- Abstract or geometric. It may have a patterned or figured shape. Allows you to decorate the living space.
Ceilings of drywall differ not only in appearance of the sheets used, forms, but also in design. There are three main types:
- Single level. Are the finished element of the interior. Can be the basis for multi-level structures. Installation work under the power of a person with little construction experience. Consist of a frame, exposed to the level, with gypsum sheets fixed to it.
- Two-, three-level. The main rule is that each subsequent level is smaller in area than the previous one. Subsequent rows are mounted on the frame of the higher. Multi-level ceilings, in turn, are divided into:
- frame - the design has one or a couple of steps located along all the walls;
- diagonal - subsequent to the first level are located in one half of the room, and the dividing line (straight, curved) connects the two corners of the room diagonally;
- zonal - the second, third levels are used as the boundary of the zone of a certain destination (dining, work, recreation).
- Complex The design is identical to the previous one. The difference lies in the presence of non-standard forms, elements, patterns.
The number of levels of gypsum ceiling directly depends on its height. For example, frame structures can go down half a meter.
Features of designs for ceilings from plasterboard
There are only two ways of fixing the plasterboard construction to the ceiling - stitched, suspended. There are slight differences between them. The first is used on flat surfaces. If the difference between the highest and lowest places is more than 2 cm, then the construction cannot be established; in this case, use the second option. Let us consider in more detail each type of installation:
Ways to connect profile for drywall
Sewing. The frame is assembled from the ceiling metal profile, very rarely use wooden slats. The fixing of the lathing is made directly to the surface of the ceiling, and the distance to the drywall is minimal, equal to the width of the material used for the frame.
Suspension. The profile is not connected directly to the upper bulkhead. The frame is attached to the surface of the walls, and fixation to the ceiling occurs with the help of vertical suspensions. The crate fixed in this way hangs on the ceiling. From here and got its name. In this design, you can change the interceiling space.
Ceiling design and style
Design options, ceiling decoration unlimited. At the same time, drywall allows you to construct multi-level ceilings, which, when properly chosen finish, in combination with lighting fixtures, will help to create a unique interior space. The use of building materials is permissible in almost any room, be it a living room, bedroom or hall.
The design of the ceiling is very important, it should be great, while combined with the overall style of the interior. A huge choice of building materials allows you to combine the look with any direction. Consider some styles:
- Minimalism. Suitable single-ceiling, having a fairly simple look, without unnecessary decorative elements. As lighting, preference should be given to LED strips, spotlights.
- High tech. Here a small amount of decorative elements is welcomed. Color solution can be made both in white and in dark colors. For finishing gloss coatings are well suited.
- Classic. You can use multi-level structures, complex arched, shaped ceilings. In the center of the room a chandelier fits well.
- Modern Most often light shades are used. Direct fixtures can be used. There are no strict rules in drawing up the interior.
- Loft. Joints between drywall sheets are not intended to be puttyed up. Do not maintain a perfectly flat surface. When painting stains, roughness. Communications are left open.
We make the project of the future ceiling
Simple finishing of the ceiling (painting, wallpapering) does not require drawings. With the help of drywall create complex design elements, so in this case, the project can not do. It includes a graphic image, calculation and cost of the required building materials, stages of work. When compiling it takes into account such moments as: the style of the room; design and parameters of the furniture set; the height of the ceiling, its area; wall and floor decoration.
What should the ceiling project include
- Sketch (preliminary sketch). A good drawing of the power to perform a person with drawing skills. It allows you to visually see how the constructed ceiling will look like, to make an assessment of its compatibility with the overall interior of the room.
- Drawing. It defines the design of the future product. May consist of several sheets. It includes all components, types, sections, cross-section of elements, their interaction, explaining the principle of work. Considers the method of combining the product with existing elements on the ceiling (electrical wiring, pipes).
- Calculation of materials. The developed project will allow to count their number, thereby saving the budget. When buying, you should take more consumable building materials by 10% -15%, this is due to the fact that some of the products will have to be cut, respectively, their size and quantity will decrease.
We calculate the required material
After drawing up the project documentation go to the calculations. It takes into account all the elements and consumables. For clarity, we calculate the necessary materials on the example of a rectangular room 6 x 3 meters:
- The work begins with the definition of the perimeter of the room. To do this, we use the standard formula P = (a + b) * 2, where P is the perimeter, a, b is the length of the walls. In our case (6 + 3) * 2 = 18. This figure is equal to the number of meters of the guide profile UD, which is mounted on all the walls under the ceiling.
- The next step is to calculate the length of the carrier profiles. Standard placement requires a mounting step of 40–50 cm. For the first case, 600: 40 = 15 pieces of 3 meters (45 meters), for the second, 600: 50 = 12 lanes (36 meters).
- Count the number of required suspensions. The distance between them is 60 cm. Based on the previous calculations, we find that for the 40 cm mounting step this figure will be 45: 0.6 = 75 pieces, in turn, for the 50 cm step, 36: 0.6 = 60 pieces .
- The number of cruciform elements used to fix the structure (crabs) is calculated by multiplying the load-bearing profiles by two. That is, for the calculations performed in the second paragraph, it will take 30 and 24 pieces, respectively.
- At the final stage it remains to calculate the number of sheets of drywall. As a sample, we take a standard sheet with a size of 1.2 x 2.5 meters. To begin with, we determine the area of the room and the coating used. S room = a * b = 3 * 6 = 18 m², it coincides with the perimeter. S gypsum = 1.2 * 2.5 = 3 m². Making a simple calculation of 18: 3 = 6 sheets.
Step-by-step installation of the ceiling of the HL
Building material is economical and reliable, with its help you can create single-level, two-level, complex ceiling structures. He allows to embody any design decisions. Many people choose a plasterboard ceiling for their abode. However, some of them use the services of specialists, others construct the structure with their own hands. But it will be useful for all of them to familiarize themselves with the step-by-step instruction reflecting all the moments and details of the decoration.
How to prepare the ceiling
Before installation, preparatory work is carried out in the room, which includes the following steps:
- Cleaning the room. From it it is necessary to take out all the furniture, remove the curtain rod for curtains, household items that interfere with the activities.
- If available, the old finish is removed from the ceiling, the surface is cleaned from stains.
- The joints of the plates, the cracks are smeared with a layer of putty, after which the whole plane is covered with a primer, which consists of antiseptics.
- After the primer dries, the room is de-energized, and the installation of the frame is started.
Equipment and materials
Any work begins with the preparation of the tools used to carry it out, counting and purchasing the necessary materials. Indeed, in the absence, lack of consumables, pencil, level at hand, the work will have to be interrupted in search of the missing component. So, for the implementation of activities will need:
- perforator, screwdriver, jigsaw;
- measuring devices (tape measure, level), pencil, marker;
- hammer, scissors for metal, construction knife;
- consumables, screws, dowels, anchors;
- main, guiding ceiling profiles;
- suspensions, connectors;
- heat-insulating, waterproofing, noise-insulating building materials;
- sealing tapes;
- sheets GCR;
- Decoration Materials.
Ceiling Layout and Frame Assembly
Work begins with determining the lowest angle in the room. To do this, the laser level is ideal, if there is none, the usual tape measure is used. In this place the first mark is put. Depending on the presence of built-in lighting elements, the distance from the ceiling will be 5 mm in their absence, 9 mm - when placed.
The level marks points in the remaining corners located at the same height. After that, a level in the form of a string is stretched between the marks, or a line connecting all marked points is drawn. Next, the guide profile UD is set on the markup. To do this, with the help of a drill, holes are drilled into which the dowels are driven. Butt joints are additionally strengthened, a piece of tin, plywood is got between the two profiles on either side of the joint.
After installing and fixing the guide profile, proceed to the installation of the main one. Considering the dimensions of a standard sheet GKL 1.2 x 2.5 m, marking on the ceiling should be made parallel lines with a pitch of 40 cm, perpendicular - 250 mm. That will fix each edge of the sheet. When crossing, the joints of the main profiles are connected with each other by crabs.
The next step will be fixing suspensions. They are connected to the ceiling with anchors. The distance between the hanging fasteners make in the range of 50-60 cm. The first set, retreating 25 cm from the wall. After connecting the suspensions with the profile, the finished frame is obtained.
Insulation - how to choose and why it is needed
The construction market offers a huge range of drywall sheets. They have an additional layer of insulation, for example, a standard sheet with foam. Products are protected from moisture, fire. Multi-layer partitions themselves become noise insulation layer.
Depending on the overlap material, the insulation suitable for the particular construction is chosen. If you take a wooden ceiling, then there can not do without a layer of steam, waterproofing. Moisture penetrating through the gaps can lead to rotting of the wooden, profile frame, swelling of drywall.
For concrete slabs, monolithic floors, additional thermal insulation is required. The most commonly chosen mineral wool, foam. Insulation filled empty areas of the frame. This takes into account the presence of built-in lighting lamps. Overheating of the wiring may cause a fire.
If necessary, you can install additional sound insulation. Mineral wool, slabs, polyurethane foam, cork, coconut fibers, and others are used as such protection.
The installation of electrical wiring begins with the development of the scheme, where all the key elements are indicated, from the junction box to each switch and light bulb. Work is carried out before the installation of sheets of drywall.
После прокладки кабеля от распредкоробки до электроточек, провода соединяют с конечным элементом, если таковой еще не установлен, контакты изолируют. Соединение жил осуществляется только через клемники. It is forbidden to lay wires in bunches, near metal pipes.
The building material is sensitive to changes in humidity, temperature fluctuations. Therefore, it is necessary to bring it into the room where it will be installed, and give a couple of days for adaptation. After you can start trimming. Installation begins with the installation of a sheet in one of the corners. Having retreated 10 cm from the beginning of the profile, the first screw is screwed in, the distance between them is 20 cm.
The head of the screw is recessed into the sheet. On the panels running parallel to each other, screws should not be on the same vertical line.
Next, follow the next sheets, with each edge to be bolted to the frame. For places where the whole panel does not fit, the sheets are cut.
Having completed the main work, proceed to finishing. The first thing to do is level the resulting plane. To do this, putty joints and gaps, primed surface. For decorative trim choose the following materials:
- Aqueous emulsion paint. It is resistant to moisture, does not wipe, there is no smell. For small surface defects remaining after the putty, use a matte basis for masking them. Glossy paint, on the contrary, will highlight all the roughness.
- Wallpaper. Classic option. The choice is unlimited, depending on the preferences of the host. Should take into account their shade. Light colors will allow you to visually increase the height, dark - reduce.
- Plaster. Acrylic based raw materials should be chosen. You can choose any type of plaster (fine, small, medium textured, large). At the same time take into account the fact that thin fillers are not able to mask the uneven surface.
- Tile. Mainly used material such as polystyrene, polyurethane. Ceramic products are rarely used, require additional surface treatment, reinforced frame.
Very interesting look combined ceilings. For example, a combination of a tension structure with a plasterboard hinged.
Lighting and ceiling lighting
Lighting occupies an important place in the whole structure. It performs, in addition to the main, also a decorative function. Depends on the correct choice of each lamp, LED. It can emphasize the ceiling, or make it unsightly, tasteless. Lighting plasterboard ceiling cover can be: open, closed, combined.
The following types of luminaires are chosen as the main lighting:
- hanging chandeliers;
- overhead lights;
- fluorescent lamps as well as daylight;
- LED strip;
- built-in spotlights;
- combined lighting.
For additional decoration of the room is used lighting, which is not a separate lighting. You can run it using different sources. The most popular of them are diode (tapes, duralight) lights, neon tubes, fluorescent lamps.
Tips on shaping drywall
When working with material sheet must be cut to a certain size. For this, a marking is made on the panel with a pencil, after which a cardboard covering is cut with the help of a construction knife. Then the sheet is placed on the table or a flat surface, broken by the markup.
To make the surface even, it is necessary to mask the joints and seams between the plates. To do this, the chamfers are removed at the ends of the sheet. Their angle of inclination directly depends on the putty method. This requires a special plane.
In addition to cutting and sealing seams, gypsum sheets can be bent, giving them wavy, curved shapes, such as arch, oval, circle, twisting diagonal line. To fold the sheets, use the dry or wet method. Together with the sheet, the guide profile, on which the sides are cut, is bent with the help of metal shears.
The ceiling of plasterboard is popular with many owners of private property. The material is inexpensive, it can be used for office space, and in the house, apartment, equipping the ceiling from the hallway to the hall. It is easy to work with gypsum plasterboards, at the same time, with their help, you can create complex structures that emphasize the individual interior of the room.