The result of the most expensive repairs can disappoint if the inhabitants of the house did not take care of lighting design in time. Properly chosen lighting focuses on the semantic center of the room, divides it into functional areas, eliminates the disadvantages of the layout.
The main components of the dwelling are space and those elements that are there. The location, the number of lighting fixtures are planned at the stage when there is already a well thought-out plan for arranging furniture, the position of the sofa, accessories is chosen, the length of the dining table is determined.
Types of lighting in the interior
Most recently, most were completely satisfied with the presence in the room of 2-3 light sources. Now the light in the interior serves not only to provide visibility, the lighting system implies the main and additional sources. Considering the direction and distribution of the luminous flux, the following types of lighting are distinguished:
|Direct||Comes from a common source. It helps to highlight the necessary interior details, to provide illumination of the working area.|
|Scattered||A stream of light directed at the ceiling reflects off of it and gives soft lighting.|
|Indirect||The main part of the luminous flux is directed to the floor, a little on the walls and ceiling. Such a convenient method to achieve intense illumination.|
Modern trends in the design of housing destroyed the old established norms. A variety of lighting devices, new rules for their placement give designers the opportunity to apply:
- multi-level lighting;
- products embedded in the floor;
- moving systems.
All physiological, mental processes are closely related to the amount of daylight. The working performance of adults, children's performance, and even the level of sales of retail outlets depend on it directly.
The use of the "second light" strategy with the absence of interfloor overlap, combined lighting, when the light penetrates not only through vertical frames, but also installed on the roof or second tier, helps to ensure good natural light.
In order to “catch” more light from the sun, everything is thought out even before construction. With the existing apartment you need to work. Use the following techniques:
- increase the windows;
- improve illumination with the help of surfaces that reflect light, scatter it throughout the room;
- in a small space they try to use light colors of the decoration and furniture;
- use mirrors, polishing;
- remove high vegetation in front of the house.
The energy efficiency of the building is greatly enhanced if the natural and artificial lighting systems are properly integrated.
A room lit by 2-3 bulbs of 60 W each does not meet sanitary standards, is uncomfortable. Properly selected lighting is one of the conditions for the convenience of modern living space.
With the light coming from above, the interior seems sharper. This effect is mitigated by light sources set at eye level. The room becomes more dynamic if the light comes from the floor.
With proper lighting, the interior will take on a completely different look. With it, hide flaws, expand the space, pushing the ceiling, walls. A directional light stream focuses on the collection of photographs or paintings, the fireplace.
The choice of type of lamp subject to the requirements of design. If the source needs to be hidden, it is embedded in the floor or ceiling, hiding behind bars, blinds. If necessary, a small angle of scattering of rays, uniform illumination of the entire space, creating a more relaxing atmosphere instead of a single chandelier install many point devices.
To improve the color perception of the interior, light sources with different "color temperature" are combined. A warm orange shade is appropriate at the dinner table, to create a cosiness in the bedroom. The yellowish light relaxes. Neutral white is good when working in the kitchen, reading, bluish is useful only in a museum or jewelry store.
Variety of fixtures
Light fixtures must be selected based on the characteristics of the room. In the living room or hotel lobby looks good massive chandelier with lots of lampshades on a long suspension. If the ceiling is low, the suspension is shortened, and the luminaires are directed upwards in order to “lift” it.
In small and low rooms, lamps fixed on the ceiling, with different intensity of luminous flux, chandeliers only on a short suspension, and preferably with frosted shades, are welcomed. This will provide soft lighting for a small space. In a spacious room, several such sources will highlight functional areas.
Wall-mounted, floor-standing, in-built, table-top appliances, spotlights, point sources often complement central lighting. The local is more functional, it changes the atmosphere.
Track lighting is popular not only in shops and offices, but also interior solutions of the apartment. The track itself often has a minimalistic look, is used by designers in fashionable loft, hi-tech, space-interiors. Track led lamps are economical, safe, durable.
Innovative type of illumination, created with the help of special profiles on the stretch ceiling, light lines, is used not only for lighting, zoning. It helps to correct the room of the unsuccessful form.
What lamps and fixtures is better to use
When making a modern interior can be used:
- Incandescent lamps. Favorable for the eyes, but only a tenth of its energy is converted into light, the other is thermal energy that heats the room.
- Fluorescent lamps. The atmosphere is not heated, but buzzing, and not everyone likes their bluish-white rays. More modern models do not have the disadvantages mentioned.
- Halogen, metal halide devices emit directional rays, which is why they are more suitable where it is necessary to highlight a niche, a column or a picture.
- LEDs. In their spectrum there are no harmful radiations, they do not heat the surrounding space, they are durable. But the power of light output is such that they are not used independently. Applicable as a night light or decorative lights.
- Light cords, related to LEDs, "Duralight". Suitable for decoration of individual interior elements, the street.
- light effects when away from the main source.
The effect of light on color shades
The color perception of different objects in the same room varies, depending on the combination of different sources with different temperatures.
It is important to observe harmony, otherwise the "color disco" will begin to irritate the eyes, and the taste of the owner will be questioned.
- Bright red is softened with orange light.
- Intense orange color becomes pastel when illuminated with yellowish light.
- Yellow will turn into faded gray if rays with a bluish tint are poured in the room.
- Pleasant lime is obtained from green, directing orange light to it, and with the help of bright blue they give a shade to the summer sea.
- Blue will remain unchanged if it is shone with neutral white.
- To perceive the purple interior as red helps yellow light.
Warm shades of light contribute to the morning awakening, calm in the evening. Neutral white lighting mobilizes, activates.
We fix the basic mistakes with the help of light
When planning lighting, it is important to choose the right lamps and the place where they should be located. It is bad when a room is in the twilight, and, although there is not a lot of light, it’s not very pleasant to feel yourself on stage with technical lighting.
- In living rooms, to get rid of dark corners and create zones combine multi-level sources, combine lighting. In a cramped bathroom, only one source will add unnecessary shadows.
- Too bright lighting, which is quickly tired, smoothed by the use of dimmers and lamp shades.
- Dine in blinding light uncomfortable. And to read in the living room or shave in the bathroom, the overhead lighting can be made more powerful.
- Built-in lighting is unproductive, it is more appropriate in narrow rooms, dressing room. Using a variety of such sources will make the ceiling a semblance of Swiss cheese.
- When organizing the interior, it is important to choose light sources that match the style decision. For banal illumination, Ilyich's light bulbs are enough, but to become a full-fledged piece of furniture, the lighting device must express an original design idea.
- During operation, the light source is installed on the left; when reading, it is placed behind the light from the lamp should not be directed into the eyes. It is bad if the light from several lamps creates multiple shadows on a piece of paper.
How to adjust the space using light:
- extends its maximum illumination and good reflective properties of the finish;
- direct light fixtures are designed for large rooms;
- the volume is adjusted by the brightness of the light;
- diffused and reflected light expands the space;
- light rays from the ceiling to the walls visually make the ceiling lower;
- the ceiling brightly lit from walls will seem above;
- light sources along one of the walls of the corridor expand it, if they go in the middle of the ceiling, they narrow it;
- longitudinal lighting extends the space;
- To visually spread the corridor, you need to illuminate the wall as much as possible at its end.
Rules for the location of sockets and switches
The optimal location of the switches - at a distance of 80-90 cm from the floor and 10 cm from the door, on the side where the handle is located. If the lighting is planned flexibly, the switch and dimmer will not be “responsible for all”. Additional lighting is regulated by switches, in accordance with the design.
The number of sockets agree with the number of electrical appliances. The height of their location is not critical, as long as the number matches the number of lighting fixtures. It is better if each room will have one or two extras.
In the corridor there is not necessarily a lot of them, the height of the location is according to the "European standard", 15 cm from the floor, so it is more convenient to connect a shoe dryer. The bathroom uses special sockets that are protected from moisture. The socket near the TV in the living room "hide" behind the screen. In the kitchen stand 60 cm to the stove and sink. Here it is desirable a large number of outlets, the list of household appliances consuming electricity is growing. In the children's hole forks protect with special valves.
Placement of lamps by room type
Natural lighting is often not full-fledged due to poor layout, small window openings, unprofitable storey location. The assistant enters the central, local or decorative artificial lighting.
There is a central one in any room, but this is by no means the only light bulb hanging in the center of the room. Above the heads, a chandelier and turned lamps should be well placed. A separate group will consist of floor lamps in harmony with the sconce ensemble, suitable table lamps. Completeness will acquire any type of room, if the decorative lighting highlights the most advantageous details: an aquarium, a niche with a sculpture, a textured floor vase.
Introduce into the interior a lot of light patterns will allow the use of rear, lower, middle illumination, devices of directional light. The lamps on the tires can be moved, changed with their help the direction of the light flux.
It will require a more muted light source. A floor lamp is placed next to the ottoman, a sconce near the dresser, a reading lamp for reading, and a lamp at the head of the bed. The style and configuration of all items of lighting echo the center.
It is better that the light at the dressing table does not give shadows, glare, optimally approaching the natural. It is useful to provide for the regulation of the degree of brightness of the room illumination.
The decoration of the large room will be a hanging chandelier with lots of ceiling lamps. Here you can experiment with light: highlight curtains, deep window sill, fountains, exquisite furniture.
The middle tier in the room can be grouped on a single switch. If there is a dining table in the living room, you need to light it up completely. The recreation area is equipped with a wall lamp or a cozy floor lamp.
Twilight is not recommended for this room, it is illuminated with the help of a central lamp. Compact corridor becomes wider when using a mirror with lamps around the perimeter.
The evening scenario implies lower illumination, and in the far impasse - illuminated wall niche.
Here dominates the local light. You should not give up the general light either, it will come in handy while working at the computer, so the eyes get less tired.
Home office is often the place of informal meetings. Next to the table, sofas and armchairs, a sconce or a floor lamp with a diffused yellowish light that makes conversation easy looks good. Halogen, fluorescent lamps are optimal for stimulating activity.
Less official than office furnishings do not allow the use of strict lamps made of glass and metal, but cozier wooden lamps with textile shades.
The lighting in the kitchen is mostly functional. Work surfaces are solidly illuminated with halogen or fluorescent lamps. In the absence of built-in lighting, use comfortable lamp-clothespins. They think over the technology of placing LED strip lights or build special rods into the eaves of the upper wall cabinets, on which directional light lamps are mounted.
The plate is illuminated by light sources located on the hood. At the stove, at other working surfaces, the light sources protect the shades with a smooth surface, such ones are easier to clean. Local light is not always required, so separate switches are made for it.
Bathroom and WC
A well-lit bright room, with direct overhead lighting and the second at the mirror, adjusts to a festive mood, it becomes spacious. Ceilings and sconces are better to choose semi-hermetic, small size and do not install them directly above the bathroom, it is not safe.
For particularly demanding there is a backlight built into the design of the bath. The dimensions of lighting devices located in the bathroom or toilet room, determined by its area.
In the toilet, where the ceilings are quite low, the best option is wall lighting. The main thing is that it cannot be touched when entering and exiting.
For the combined bathroom is convenient infrequently encountered type of lighting, lower lighting. It looks decorative, comfortable at night, when you don’t want to wake yourself up with a bright light when you go to the toilet.
The main rule when installing lighting in the nursery - they should be safe, located at a sufficient distance from curious children's hands, beating glass parts should be avoided.
Here you need more natural light, artificial sources should not be sharp and bright. Light trying to fill all the space evenly. The most applicable in the children's spot lighting, chandeliers with "pendants" of crystal are inappropriate here, they "attract" balls and pucks.
The role of working lighting will be performed by a convenient table lamp with the ability to adjust the height and direction. The most brightly lit zone becomes the playroom. A small, beautiful night light helps to sleep, and it’s more convenient for parents to navigate during a blackout.
The feeling of the whole room can change if only the usual incandescent lamp is replaced with a halogen or LED. Metamorphosis from the complete replacement of all chandeliers and sconces are unpredictable. When there are no funds for a complete transformation of the interior, you can have fun by choosing a few lighting fixtures from the catalog.
Proper lighting design home is important not only to preserve the health of the eyes, it contributes to better relaxation, and the morning coffee in a beautiful lamp will seem much tastier and give the installation on a good day.